Hundreds of years ago, beadmakers heated glass using oil lamps, thus the name "lampworking" originated. Today, a propane/oxygen torch is used to heat glass rods to approximately 1200F. Then the molten glass is wound onto a stainless steel rod. It is about the consistency of thick honey when the bead is formed and centered. Decorations and embellishments are applied with stringers of glass, enamel powders, frit, silver and gold foil and more. The bead then goes immediately into a kiln to be annealed for lasting strength and beauty. The final result of this fascinating process is seen in the beautiful handmade beads used in many of my creations.